JSC "Kuznetsov" is the largest enterprise of aviation and space propulsion engineering.

THE HISTORICAL CHRONICLES OF "KUZNETSOV" (JSC)

 

JSC "KUZNETSOV" is a leading Russian company of production and repair of aircraft gas turbine engines, liquid-propellant rocket motors for space launch R-7, drive gas compressor units and modular stations.

The company was found in 1912 on the edge of Moscow in Nikolayevskaya Street (now Tkatskaya Street) and based on the semi-artisan workshops.  It was assembly factory of aircraft seven-cylinders stellar engines (80 hp) of French company "Gnome" from the parts shipped from France. They were installed on the aircraft "Newport-4", "Farman-16" and etc.

In 1915 the company "Gnome" established the company "Gnome and Ron" by attaching engine company "Ron".

Then the most powerful engines (150 and 220 hp) were collected in a small factory of French company "Salmson" located near the Semenovskaya Square. The staff of the factory was French, parts and components of engines were also imported from France.

In 1915 the factory "Motor" which produced engines "Kalep-80" and spare parts for motors "Gnome" and "Ron" was evacuated from Riga to Moscow. The factory was located in Zamoskvorechye close to the Danilovskaya Square.

In 1920 the "Gnome and Ron", "Motor" and "Salmson" factories which had been already nationalized were appropriated by  the State aircraft factory numbers- GAZ 2, 4 and 6, accordingly. From 1922 the factory "Gnome-Rhone" was named GAZ № 2 "Ikar". In 1924 there were changes: the factory № 6 (the former "Salmson") was attached to the "GAZ» № 4 "Motor". In 1925 the company obtained the name of M.V. Frunze.

The area of the factory "Ikar" did not allow for further extension and in 1927 there was made a historical solution for integration of two factories into one. The new factory became known as "Frunze Joint State Aircraft Factory № 2 and № 4". Soon the name was shortened to the "Frunze Factory № 24".

The production of piston engines, liquid-cooled AM-34 designed by A.A. Mikulin was started in thirties of last century.

This engine was the best piston engine in the world at that time and was installed on the TB-3, R-7, ANT-25 aircrafts. The most famous achievements in aviation by the crews of V. Chkalov, M. Gromov, S.Shestakov, A.Yumashev, G.Baydukov, A.Belyaev, S.Danilin were made on the aircraft with the engines of the factory which now is known as JSC"KUZNETSOV".

In October 1941 the factory was evacuated to Kuibyshev to the territory of the factory № 337. The production of AM-38 engines which has been begun in Moscow for the IL-2 was resumed on a new site in the shortest time. During the war (from 1941 to 1945) there were produced 25,443 engines of AM-38F, 10,242 engines of AM-42 (for Il-10) and also AM-35 (for the MiG-1) and GAM-34BS (for torpedo boats) engines. In the late forties early fifties the factory started the mass production of turbojet engines VK-1, designed by V.Y.Klimov for frontline aircraft Il-28 and MiG-15, RD-900 - ramjet engines designed by M.M. Bondaryuk for pilotless aircraft- target of La-17 and RD-012 supersonic intercontinental cruise launch for "Burya" designed by S.A. Lavochkin.

Space theme in the history of the company was opened in 1957 immediately after the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite. Rocket engines RD-107, RD-108 and their modifications designed by OKB "Energomash" (now JSC "Energomash") under the leadership of V.P. Glushko have been already produced for more than fifty years. Since that time all of human spaceships (spacecraft) flights such as "Vostok", "Voskhod", "Soyuz", "Progress" and etc. have been placed in orbit by launch- rocket (LR) of the R-7A with the engines made by JSC "KUZNETSOV".

In the second half of the fifties the factory started the mass production of "NK" engines designed by OKB of Chief Designer N.D. Kuznetsov. Since then for more than 60 years the companies have been combined business partnerships: OKB developed engines but the M.V. Frunze factory serially produced them. Originally the design bureau (later JSC "N.D. Kuznetsov SNTK") was formed in Kuibyshev in 1946 by the Decree of the Minister of Aviation Industry (№ 228 from April 19, 1946) by decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (decision № 874-366 from April 17, 1946), entitled as The State Union Experimental Factory № 2.

The German specialists (engineers) from aircraft engine companies such as "Yunkers", "BMW" and "Askaniya" worked on the factory №2 from October 1946 to December 1953. They worked together with Russian designers for improving the air-breathing jet engine 004 (based on YuMO-004), 012B (based on YuMO-012), 003S (based on BMW-003) and 022 turboprop engine (based on YuMO-022).

On April 15, 1949 Nikolai Dmitrievich Kuznetsov was assigned as a Chief Designer of the factory №2 for enhance the technical leadership and moved from Ufa. In the early of fifties the company developed the experimental engine-spark 2TV-2F (later NK-12) with a capacity 12,500 hp for the strategic bomber Tu-95. From 1954 and for over half a century this engine and its modifications - NK-12M, NK-12MV, NK-12MA, NK-12MK, NK-12MP, NK-12MPT (capacity from 12,000 to 15,000 hp) have been mass produced at the Frunze factory. The engines are installed on Tu-142, An-22 "Antey", long-haul passenger Tu-114, winged "Orlenok" and other aircraft.

On August 27, 1953 the experimental factory № 2 was renamed to the experimental factory № 276.

On July 12, 1957 the factory was awarded the Order of Lenin for the NK-12 engine.
Since the early 1970s the companies developed and produced aircraft gas turbine engines for the gas industry. The first domestic GTD NK-12ST capacity of 6.3 MW was designed in 1974 on the basis of TVD NK-12MV turboprop. At the present time these engines are operated at 117 compressor stations in the 852 gas pumping units GPA-TS-6, 3. In 1982 there was created a ground engine NK-16ST 16MW capacity on the basis of engine NK-8-2U (operated by Tu-154 and Il-62).
N.D. Kuznetsov was the Chief Designer of OKB until 1994. During this time, under his leadership, were designed 57 original and modified engines. Among them are NK-12, NK-4, NK-8, NK-22, NK-25, NK-144, NK-86, NK-88, NK-89, NK-321, NK-93. The development of practically of all engines was in close collaboration with the "Samara Design Bureau of Machine Building" (JSC "SKBM" former "Kuibyshev Engineering Design Bureau"), founded in 1957 as a branch of the Bureau and received self-sufficiency in 1967 to improve the reliability and resource in the mass production and operation of aircraft engines of various types of development Kuznetsov Design Bureau.

In 1966 the experimental factory №276 was renamed to "Kuibyshev Motor Factory "MAP". In 1967 the M.V. Frunze factory returned its name, until that year it has been classified and worked for a six years under the name "Organization p/b 32".

Next renaming of the company was only in 1994 when it was transformed into JSC "Motorostroitel". At the same time "Kuibyshev Scientific Production Association "Trud"(the name of the bureau since 1981) was renamed into OJSC" Samara Scientific Technical Complex "NK Engines". Two years later on January 11, 1996, Samara Scientific Technical Complex was named after N.D. Kuznetsov.

The protracted crisis in the engine industry and engine-related areas in the mid-nineties- early 2000s has put the Samara companies on the brink of survival. The company had been still produced engines for the Russian space project and gas industry but the number of orders had been reduced significantly. In accordance with the State orders a new aircraft engines have not been actually produced but only performed a repair of existing products.

On April 16, 2008 The Russian President signed the Decree № 497 "On further development of defense JSC OPK "Oboronprom" which created a "United Engine Building Corporation" were to enter JSC "Motorostroitel", JSC "N.D. Kuznetsov SNTK", JSC "SKBM" and NPO "Povolzhskiy AviTI".

In 2009 the company came under the control of JSC"MC" United Engine Building Corporation "("MC "ODK"). At that time the total debt burden of "Motorostroitel", JSC "N.D. Kuznetsov SNTK" and also JSC "SKBM" exceeded 7 billion rubles. To derive them from the verge of bankruptcy, the successful implementation of investment projects and the further efficient development it was decided to merge the companies into one corporate entity. It was also decided to include in the united company - JSC "NPO" Povolzhskiy Aviation Technology Institute". This company was established on the basis of Kuibyshev’s branch NIAT and NIID and was a multi-industrial Institute of the Russian Federation.

On June 27, 2011 there was made a record in the Uniform State Register of Legal Entities (Incorporation) on the accession of JSC "KUZNETSOV" of three companies: JSC "N.D. Kuznetsov SNTK", JSC "Samara Design Bureau of Machine Building" and JSC "NPO"Povolzhskiy AviTI". Thereby now Samara engine companies totally completed the complex of legal process of reorganization.

Currently JSC "KUZNETSOV" is an integrated structure in which are concentrated all the phases of technological chain of engine production: development - production - placing to market and sales - logistic support during the operation by the clients (customers).
The company has all kinds of licenses under the Russian legislation in maintaincing activities to build aircraft, missile and industrial engines and conduct the necessary work to the production’s support.